 #### Standard Measurements

1 cup = 24 centiliter (cl) or 240 milliliter (ml)
1 tablespoon (tbsp) = 15 milliliter (ml)
1 teaspoon (tsp) = 5 milliliter (ml)
1 fluid ounce (oz) = 30 milliliter (ml)
1 pound (lb) = 454 grams (gm)

Basic Cooking Rule: 16 ounces = 1 pound

#### Weight

Note(s):
– The two most commonly used units of weight (or mass) measurement for cooking in the United States are the ounce and the pound.
– Do not confuse the ounce of weight with the fluid ounce, because they are not the same; there is no standard conversion between weight and volume unless you know the density of the ingredient.
– To make matters worse, there are different kinds of weight measurement; Avoirdupois weight, Troy weight, and Apothecaries weight. In the U.S., when someone refers to pounds and ounces of weight (especially in cooking) they are usually referring to Avoirdupois weight.

#### Standard conversions:

1 ounce = 28.35 grams
1 pound = 453.59 grams
1 gram = 0.035 ounce
100 grams = 3.5 ounces
1000 grams = 2.2 pounds
1 kilogram = 35 ounces
1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds

#### Volume

1 milliliter = 1/5 teaspoon
1 milliliter = 0.03 fluid ounce
1 teaspoon = 5 milliliters
1 tablespoon = 15 milliliters
1 fluid ounce = 30 milliliters
1 fluid cup = 236.6 milliliters
1 quart = 946.4 milliliters
1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 34 fluid ounces
1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 4.2 cups
1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 2.1 fluid pints
1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 1.06 fluid quarts
1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 0.26 gallon
1 gallon = 3.8 liters

#### Temperature

Conversion formulas:
C = (F – 32) X 5/9
F = (C X 9/5) + 32

32F = 0C
40F = 4.4C
100F = 37.7C
200F = 93.3C
225F = 107.2C
250F = 121.1C
275F = 135C
300F = 148.9C
325F = 162.8C
350F = 176.7C
375F = 190.6C
400F = 204.4C
425F = 218.3C
450F = 232.2C
475F = 246.1C
500F = 260C

#### Distance

1 inch = 2.5 centimeters
1 foot = 30 centimeters
1 millimeter = 0.04 inch
1 centimeter = 0.4 inch
1 meter = 3.3 feet

#### Abbreviations (Standard English)

cup = C
fluid cup = fl C
fluid ounce = fl oz
fluid quart = fl qt
foot = ft
gallon = gal
inch = in
ounce = oz
pint = pt
pound = lb
quart = qt
tablespoon = T or Tbsp
teaspoon = t or tsp
yard = yd

millimeter = mm
centimeter = cm
meter = m
kilometer = km
milliliter = mL
liter = L
milligram = mg
gram = g
kilogram = kg

#### Unusual Weights and Measures

1 bit = 2 pinches
1 smidgen = 4 bits
1 dollop = 2 smidgens
1 gaggle = 3 dollops
1 gaggle = 2 glugs
1 blanket = 2 glugs
1 smothering = 3 blankets

#### Dry Unit, Liquid Unit

1 pint, dry = 1.1636 pints, liquid
1 quart, dry = 1.1636 quarts, liquid
1 gallon, dry = 1.1636 gallons, liquid

#### Counting

Note:
Many foods are sold in quantities of dozen or gross. Eggs are a good example of something that you buy by the dozen. When referring to more than one dozen or gross, you do not add an “s” to the end; instead, you precede the word by the amount as follows.

Usage Examples:
One dozen eggs
Three dozen people
Five gross of pencils
It is also very common to use the phrase “half dozen” to mean six.
1 Dozen = 12
1 Gross = 12 Dozen or 144